Rangefinders are mounted on top of her aft gun turret and on the superstructure abaft the funnel. The stern casemate gunport has been plated over. The heavy gun turrets in midships position have been removed. Training Ship. Three of her 12 in gun turrets are still in place. Note the various other guns fitted—5 in guns in twin- and single-enclosed mounts as well as 5 in and 40 mm and 20 mm A. The casemate gunports have been plated over.
Note the camouflage painting. They were replaced by 5 in twin-turrets. Note the two-colour camouflage in accordance with Measure The forward cage mast was later removed and replaced by a light pole mast. The side armour on the hull was also removed. USS Wyoming in after the removal of her forward cage mast. Note the camouflage painting in accordance with Measure 22, i. Range-finders are installed on three of her heavy gun turrets and on top of her bridge. Note the casemate guns still arranged on a single deck level. Bulges have been added. A catapult is mounted on the top of P-turret.
Her new superstructure overlaps her beam. Her X-turret has received a second range-finder. The forward 5 in guns were raised one deck and A. During all the medium guns were removed from the superstructure deck, the forward cagemast was replaced by a lower tripod, and the A. USS Arkansas in Her forward cage mast had been replaced by a tripod mast.
All the remaining lower casemate guns had been removed. Sponson-mounted 40 mm A. SRa and SC antennas were rigged on her forward and aft masts, respectively. Platforms carrying A. Her bridge superstructure and her aft mast were modified. Likewise, a SK radar screen was installed on her aft mast. Note the deck inclination toward her stern. Note the German naval flag on her mainmast. There are two seaplanes on the catapult on top of turret 3. Photo Collection A. An awning has been installed abreast the bridge and B-turret. Note the range-finders on top of B- and X-turrets, also the crane and the seaplane catapult.
Note the traces of war actions. The SK radar screen has been moved from an aft to a forward position SRa screen below it. Her aft mast and her bridge have been equipped with modern fire control gear and A. Photo J. Collection Fr. Rather more convenient alternatives were either five turrets of triple mounted 12 in Propulsion problems also arose with the New York class. Not fully acquainted with geared turbines, the builders refused to adopt specifications laid down by the Navy Department.
Accordingly a reversion was made to reciprocating engines, then thought to be more economical. The original cagemasts—in this class very close to the former two funnels—were replaced by tripods. Both ships were converted to oil burning. Both ships of this class were pioneers in ship- borne radar. During World War II the appearance of both ships remained little changed, apart from the installation of additional A A guns. USS New York in Her fantail-mounted 5 in casemate gun has already been removed. There are platform-mounted searchlights around her cage masts.
Her second funnel has been removed. Her cage masts have been replaced by tripod masts of different heights. This was done to protect them from spray and waves. All the 3 in A. An additional catapult was carried temporarily on the starboard side of Q-turret. Note gradual inclination of her deck towards her stern. Light A. SRa radar is installed abaft her funnel on her tower structure. The second funnel was removed and both cagemasts replaced by tripods, the mainmast being moved to a position aft of turret Q. One catapult was installed on turret Q, and the medium armament regrouped as in Arkansas.
The 3 in A. New York was the first U. Fitted in December it had a bridge-mounted XAF antenna. Collection A. The forward casemate guns have been removed. There is a single 5 in gun in an open mount abreast the bridge superstructure and an additional 3 in A. Note the searchlights on the aft mast platform.
Note the upper bridge and the conning tower below. The 5 in L 51 gun next to the bridge is placed in an open mount. The life rafts are attached to the sides of the heavy gun turrets. SRa radar screens are carried on her foremast and abaft the funnel. Note her hull damaged below A-turret above the water line.
Also note the 20 mm A. Battle scores have been painted on the side of her bridge. The pipes visible along her hull line may be fuel pipelines. New models of fire control equipment are installed atop the bridge and on the slightly modified aft mast. Casoly, Collection Fr. She is still carrying her forward and fan tail-mounted casemate guns. Her cage masts do not carry distinct platforms. USS Texas in SRa radar antenna are installed on her fore mast and abaft her funnel on the tower structure.
Her port side shows the light A. Also shown are the ways her aft mast was modified as of and carrying a SK radar antenna. BB 35 Texas war a group of six 20 mm A. The aft mast was modified New York. In December the experimental radar in , and in the light A. During the grouped see deck plan. The date is October USS Texas in about Her appearance has completely changed since her completion. The forward casemate gunports have been plated over. Range-finders can now be seen on the B and X-turrets as well as on top of the bridge.
A small-sized pennant number is painted on her bow above the water line. Note the SC radar screen placed above the SRa antenna. The casemate guns are swung out. The camouflage painting is in accordance with Measure Numerous 40 mm and 20 mm A. Note that the radar screen on her aft mast is hardly visible.
The crew are manning the rails. The ship is still carrying two SRa screens in addition to one SK antenna on the aft mast. Photo Texas Highway Dept. Nevada Class The design of these ships marked a new era in naval construction. This arrangement and the grouping of the main batteries provided the same fire power as the New York class with one turret less.
Both ships received oil burning boilers when they were built. Oklahoma was found to be beyond repair and not worth rebuilding. Nevada was luckier. After 12 months of complete rebuilding she rejoined the fleet, with her pre-war silhouette changed. USS Nevada in Four turret ships have made a comeback. There is only one funnel left. Her forecastle deck is extended, her quarterdeck is one deck lower. Her stepped stern section formerly bore a casemate gun.
Her long quarterdeck permitted the installation of a catapult on the fantail. The 5 in casemate guns have been raised a deck. Hull bulges added. Total reconstruction completely changed her appearance. She now has a slanted funnel cap and a SK radar screen on her foremast. Both her bow and her stern carry 20 mm A. The life rafts are stowed on the sides of her 14 in gun turrets. Two catapults were installed on turret X and on the quarter deck.
The bulges added at this time reduced the speed of the ship. Nevada was damaged at Pearl Harbor, but the captain succeeded in beaching her. Other changes included the removal of all medium guns and of the catapult previously placed on turret X plus its handling gear. In addition forty-eight 40 mm and twenty-seven 20 mm A. There is a total of three aircraft on both of her catapults. She is equipped with huge tripod masts. Her long forecastle ends at the aircraft crane. She is carrying a large number of boats.
Note that the forward and aft casemate guns have already been removed whereas the midships casemate guns have been mounted on the upperdeck level. One of the hawseholes is empty. Collection S. Note the unique funnel cap, and the four MK 37 gunnery control equipments on top of the bridge, abreast the funnel, and directly abaft the short aft tripod. Note the break in her quarterdeck and the small-sized pennant number aft, close to the 40 mm A. Two SRa radar antennas are installed.
The midships catwalk overlaps the deck side. The aft aircraft crane has been mounted on the fantail. She is still carrying two SRa radar antennas, but has been rigged with an additional SK antenna on her foremast.
The 5 in guns are swung out and elevated against enemy aircraft. Note the elongated counter-sunk 20 mm A. Her A. The SK and SRa antennas are visible on her foremast. Note the supporting structure of the catapult on top of X-turret USS Oklahoma two years after her completion. A total of eight searchlights are mounted. Her forward casemate guns have been removed.
Note the gunport blinds opened for the occasion. The ramp for a light airplane can be seen on B-turret. Note the similar arrangement of both her mast platforms. Note the muzzle covers on the gun barrels of A-turret.
All her guns are swung out. Geared turbine engines were at last adopted. This was in response to designs adopted by the Japanese for their battleships Fuso and Yamashiro , then under construction. Again the United States preferred to follow the example of other seapowers, rather than to initiate innovations. The modernisation of the Pennsylvania class after World War I and again between and was similar to changes made to the Nevada class. During the war the catapults on the X turret were removed and replaced by three splinter-proof protected mounts for 20 mm A.
The B turret also received a similar mounting. Her wreck was not raised. She is similar in appearance to the ships of the Nevada class. All her heavy guns are mounted in triple-turrets. Note the obsolete shape of the ventilator coamings. Covering force duty off the West Coast and Hawaii. Dockyard overhaul.
Covering force duty off the West Coast and Attu. Work up period off Hawaii, Makin. Period in dock. Work up off the West Coast. Wake, Okinawa. Her midships casemate guns have been raised to a higher deck while her fore and aft casemate guns have been removed and all gunports plated over. Her cage masts have been replaced by heavy tripod masts. Her armament has been reinforced by A. The height of her funnel has been increased. USS Pennsylvania in Her aft tripod mast has been replaced by a tower superstructure. The ship was equipped with only two Mk 37 fire controls.
The radar equipment carried as of summer one CXAM antenna on her aft pole mast, two platform-mounted SRa screens on her fore mast. Pennsylvania was in dry dock at Pearl Harbor on December 7th , and did not escape serious damage. At that time she already carried the CXAM radar aerial on her forward tripod mast. Only two Mk 37 radar directed fire control equipments were installed. The light A.
The catapult on turret X with its aircraft handling gear was removed, and the heavy aft tripod mast was replaced by a light pole mast carrying the CXAM antenna that had formerly been fitted on the forward tripod mast. Pennsylvania received considerable damage from a Japanese aircraft torpedo attack in August , and her career ended as a target ship for nuclear bomb tests in Pre-war modifications to Arizona were similar to those made to her sister ship Pennsylvania , except that the height of the funnel was not increased.
She still has her two cage masts. Note her wooden deck and the narrow space between the 14 in gun barrels. Her aft cage mast has been replaced by a tripod mast. There are chine-type frames on the fore part of her hull. USS Pennsylvania immediately after her wartime reconstruction in February All portholes have been plated over. In this photograph the enlarged bridge gives a false impression of her funnel having been removed. Note the range-finder in front of her bridge. Note the barrels of Y-turret closed by muzzle covers and the derricks placed abreast the aft 14 in gun turret.
The latter carries the SRa antenna. Also note the catapult with the fan tail-sited aircraft handling crane and the 20 mm A. Two of the 5 in twin-mounts on her port side and some of the 40 mm four-barrelled A. The SK-2 radar is installed atop her foremast with the platform-mounted 20 mm A. Note the covered cockpits of the shipborne aircraft. A shrine was later Radar Equipment erected above her. Two of her 14 in gun turrets were recovered and installed as coastal defence artillery Up to the time of Pearl Harbor no radar had been on the island, in which role they were manned by fitted to Arizona.
USS Arizona in Both her bow and stern casemate guns have already been removed. Her armament was reinforced by A. Her remaining casemate guns had been raised to the next deck, but there were still two more of them than on board th z Pennsylvania. A catapult was mounted on top of her X-turret. There are hardly any changes in her appearance as compared to She now carries platform-mounted machine guns on her masts.
The number of 5 in A. They all received splinter-proof shields. She was sunk at Pearl Harbor on December 7, Note the two aircraft handling cranes abreast her aft tripod mast mounted high for the purpose of lifting seaplanes onto the X-turret catapult.
During construction some of the 5 in casemate guns were raised to a higher deck level to keep them dry in heavy seas. Contrary to the normal practice of building two ships in each class, the U. Navy ordered three New Mexicos. As a result of the rebuilding, the New Mexicos remained the most modern battleships in the U. Navy until the advent of the North Carolina class. As none of the three were at Pearl Harbor at the end of , their appearance was not changed by repair or rebuilding as happened to ships that were damaged.
Only more A. After the war one of the class— Mississippi — served as an experimental gunnery training ship and later as a guided missile test ship. Note the similarity of her fore and aft tripod masts. Period in dock, Makin. Saipan, Guam. Occupation of Japan. Note her clipper bow. From the beginning her midship casemate guns were emplaced one deck higher than those on other battleships. She carried only a few A. Her former cage masts have been replaced by tower superstructures.
The number of A. She has a catapult on X-turret see plan of the Mississippi in USS New Mexico in All casemate guns and the catapult once installed on top of X-turret have been removed. She is equipped with improved fire control gear. All A. The drawing shows her midship section. SK radar has been installed on her fore mast top, and the SRa screen can be seen on her aft tower.
Her funnel has received a cap. The 20 mm A. The forward tower with a short tubular topmast incorporated the bridge. The A. As they were stationed in the Atlantic at the time the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, all three ships of this class avoided damage then. This arrangement was carried by New Mexico until about New Mexico was twice hit by Kamikazes, in January and August Kamikazes were Japanese aircraft loaded with explosives, and guided onto their target by suicide pilots.
This desperate weapon was deployed by the Japanese in the last phase of the war. More than U. Note the casemate gun recesses with their gunports plated over. Note her tower bridge superstructure, her oval citadel, and her stepped hull shape with its vertical armour plating. A canvas awning covers the fantail. Also note the recesses where the casemate guns were formerly mounted. All casemate guns have been removed. Each platform carries six 20 mm A.
There is a SK radar screen on her foremast whereas a SRa antenna is mounted on her bridge superstructure, and another SRa aerial on her aft tower superstructure. Note her sharply contoured clipper bow and her bow hawsepipe without an anchor. Training Exercises. Her former bow and stern casemate guns have been removed. There was no difference between her appearance and that of New Mexico at this time. Note the new shape of her 14 in gun turrets. USS Mississippi in A SK radar is rigged on her aft mast.
The platform-mounted 20 mm A. Her funnel has a slanted cap. She has been converted into a gunnery experimental ship. Only her aftermost 14 in gun turret is left. Note the various 5 in gun single- and twin-mounts. Her forward top bears a radar screen. Her aft tripod mast shows an early model of the SPS 8A radar antenna. The four aft 40 mm gun mounts belonging to her former wartime A.
This 6 in twin-turret type was originally fitted on the two A. The type of radar shown in this plan of may not be correct—see the photographs on the following pages showing radar equipment carried in other years. BB 41 Mississippi Mississippi's pre-war modifications were similar to those made to her sister ship, New Mexico. At the time America entered the war she was stationed in the Atlantic. Around a slanted funnel cap was fitted. Mississippi was twice hit by Kamikazes in January and June and slightly damaged.
Soon after the war February work was started on converting Mississippi into a gunnery test ship see drawings and photographs , reclassified as AG After completion she replaced AG 17 Wyoming. Her aft and forward casemate guns have already been removed. Range-finders are installed on top of her bridge and her X-turret. USS Mississippi in the s. The cage masts have already been removed and replaced by a tower bridge in the forward position and a control tower in the aft position. Note the improved range-finder equipment. Aircraft are carried on both catapults. USS Mississippi in the early months of before the casemate guns were removed.
Her camouflage painting corresponds to Measure Her funnel is still without a cap. She now has a funnel cap, numerous A. Her small-sized pennant number is painted on her bow. For her silhouette see the drawing on p. The aft 14 in gun turret is still fitted. Note the early model of the SPS 8A air search antenna.
The Mk 37 fire control gear is carried on the bridge superstructure. Collection G. Albrecht USS Mississippi after —see also the drawing on p.
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The crane has been removed and two Terrier launchers have been installed aft. She carries a SPS 6 radar antenna on her foremast, MK 56 fire control gear in front of the bridge, and an early model of the Mk 68 fire control gear on top of the bridge. A large-sized pennant number is painted on her bow. Collection F. She carries two experimental Terrier launchers aft. A Mk 37 fire control gear with an additional radar screen for guided missile control above it is installed on the aft tower superstructure. A SPS 6 radar antenna is carried on the foremast.
The rarely installed SPS 8B radar antenna is carried on her aft mast. Fraccaroli of the last photographs of USS Mississippi before her decommissioning. Note the 8B antenna atop her aft mast. Photo April , W. Dockyard repairs. Ma- kin. Work up period. Saipan, Guam, Southern Palau islands. Iwo Jima, Okinawa.
USS Idaho shown in the first years of her commissioning. Her forward and aft casemate guns have already been removed. The catapults and the aircraft handling crane had not yet been installed. In she resembled the New Mexico and the Mississippi. USS Idaho in She resembles the New Mexico and the Mississippi in appearance. She carries a SK radar screen on her fore mast top.
Her 20 mm A. USS Idaho in with a sharply slanted funnel cap. A 20 mm gun platform is on top of Z-turret. Her funnel is shown at its full height. In all her old 5 in A. Her funnel was given a slanted cap. Idaho was hit by a torpedo from an aircraft in April Note the searchlights on the platforms beside the funnel.
Fraccaroli USS Idaho after her first wartime modification. She looks similar to the Mississippi, but her casemate guns have been removed. She carries her SK radar antenna on the foremast. Her SRa antenna is mounted on top of her aft tower superstructure. Note the 5 in single gun mount beside the funnel.
USS Idaho in after her last modifications. The SRa radar antenna is mounted above the bridge. She has a very narrow base for her stabilized range-finders. Note the unusual funnel cap. Turbo-electric drive was selected for both ships, the protection below the water line was improved, and the number of medium-caliber guns was reduced.
Work up period Leyte. Noticeable aspects of their appearance were a hull line clear of gunports and two funnels. As in previous classes the main battery consisted of 14 in guns mounted in four triple-turrets. They joined the fleet again totally changed in appearance see plans. There are very few changes to be seen as compared to her original appearance for a comparison see the section plan of her funnel. Note that her hull line has been cleared of gunports.
There are platform-mounted A. Her funnel section plan up to USS Tennessee in in the interval between modifications. Her aft cage mast was replaced by a tower structure. She carried a SRa radar screen in a foretop position. USS Tennessee in A bow view after her total reconstruction. She is now equipped with a SK radar, a fire control radar, and numerous A. The 40 mm A. Note her characteristic hull bulges. Tennessee was still carrying her two cagemasts at the outbreak of war. She was hit by two bombs at Pearl Harbor, but damage was not serious.
In October Tennessee went into the dockyard for a major refit, which changed the silhouette of the ship completely. All the superstructure was stripped off, leaving the basic hull and main armament. The catapult on turret X was not replaced. In August Tennessee was hit three times by coastal artillery off Saipan, and was again damaged in April by a Kamikaze aircraft.
Note her smooth hull as compared to the battleships of former classes and the large base of the aft cage mast. Her aft cage mast has been replaced by a tower structure. The SRa radar antenna is installed atop her foremast. The 5 in A. Note the barrage balloons above the ship. USS Tennessee in after preliminary repair works. USS Tennessee after her total reconstruction. This photograph was taken in May immediately after her recommissioning. The main radar antennas may either have been erased from the photo by a wartime censor or may not have been installed yet.
Four Mk 37 control gear with fire control radars atop are carried. Note the hull bulges forward. The painting is ocean-gray according to Scheme Note that her appearance has completely changed. Her superstructure resembles the ships of the new South Dakota II class. Note the SK radar antenna on her foremast and the four Mk 37 fire control equipments carried for her 5 in battery. Saipan, Tinian, Guam. Surigao Straits, Leyte. At Pearl Harbor she was heavily damaged by hits from two torpedoes and three bombs and sank on an even keel. She was raised and provisionally rebuilt.go
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At the same time both the cagemasts were removed and a bridge mounted polemast added. The catapult on turret X was replaced by a rangefinder. All the casemate guns were removed and splinter proof protection was given the A. In June she was hit by fire from coastal guns and was damaged again by a Kamikaze attack in January Note the upper half of her aft cage mast painted black and her very narrow transom. A model of the California exhibited at the San Francisco Maritime Museum showing her midship section. USS California in about after her reconstruction.
Her appearance has completely changed. The three-colour camouflage painting is in accordance with Measure There is no radar antenna recognizable. Both her cage masts and her catapults are missing. Shortly afterwards the California went into dock for total reconstruction. Photo October She now carries the SK radar antenna on her forward mast head.
Colorado Class The Colorado class was initially nearly identical in appearance to the Tennessee class. The principal difference was the adoption of 16 in guns as main armament, arranged in four twin-turrets. Four ships of the Colorado class were laid down, but only three completed.
Construction of the fourth— Washington —was stopped under the terms of the Washington Treaty, and the unfinished hull used as a target for underwater demolition tests. At the outbreak of hostilities with Japan Colorado was in for overhaul at a West Coast yard. West Virginia had to be completely rebuilt, totally changing her silhouette. She was given a new superstructure exactly resembling the modernized ships of the Tennessee class.
Overall these three ships were considered, after the conversion, as being equivalent to newer battleships, although their speed was less. She was similar in appearance to the California and the Tennessee except for the 16 in twin-turrets, which the others did not have. There have been few changes in the positioning of her A. She never carried a range-finder on top of her B-turret.
USS Colorado at the end of The covered platform around her aft cage mast is not shown here. USS Colorado in Her aft cage mast has been shortened and a machine gun platform erected atop the stump. A small funnel cap has been fitted to her forward funnel. The ship is equipped with SC and SRa radars rigged in a forward position.
Her cage mast stump has been replaced by a tower structure aft. Likewise, both her forward 5 in casemate guns have been removed to make room for an increased number of A. Catapults were fitted on top of turret X and on the quarter deck, and aircraft handling gear was sited by them. West Coast. At that time she was still carrying her two cagemasts. Early in the aft cagemast was cut down to half its height and a light A. In addition two "flying platforms" carrying six 20 mm A. The X turret catapult was removed and two platforms with two 20 mm A. It was not until that the aft cagemast stump was removed and replaced by a tower structure.
The forward cagemast was retained, but could hardly be recognized as such due to the high bridge structure and the voluminous foretop. Her hull is bare of gunports. Note the hawsehole for her bow anchor. Note the SRa radar antenna carried on her foremast platform. The aft cage mast carrying searchlight platforms has not yet been reduced in height. USS Colorado after with camouflage painting according to Measure Her appearance is similar to the drawing of her in , but now the SK radar antenna has been placed on the foremast.
T 98 USS Colorado in about after the replacement of her aft cage mast by a tower structure. The camouflage painting in accordance with Measure 32 prevents the recognition of details, e. The hull bulges, however, are clearly visible. Two SRa radar antennas can be recognized.
One gun barrel of each of the forward turrets has its muzzle cover on. Her crew is manning the rails. Her 5 in A. For details of her aft cage mast stump see the section plan. SC and SRa radars are carried on top of her fore mast. The aft cage mast stump of the Maryland in The platforms for the 20 mm A.
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Her aft cage mast stump has been replaced by a tower structure. She carries SC and SRa antennas on her fore top. Maryland was dam- Pre-war modifications to this ship were similar to aged on three occasions: off Saipan in June by a those made to Colorado. Nor did war time altera- torpedo from an aircraft; off Leyte in November tions to the two vessels differ greatly, except that ; and off Okinawa in April , when a Maryland was equipped with a total of forty-eight Kamikaze attack caused extensive damage.
She was the first US battleship to be armed with 16 in guns. Note the black painting of her aft cage mast above the searchlight platforms. Her aft cage mast has been cut down to half its height and carries a 20 mm A. Her aft cage mast has been replaced by a tower structure crowned by a SRa antenna. The SK and another SRa radar antennas are mounted on her foremast. A range-finder and two radar controlled fire control gear are concealed by provisional protective shields. The ship is camouflaged in accordance with Measure Photo April, Leyte, Surigao Straits, Mindoro. Iwo Jima. USS West Virginia in A CXAM radar screen is installed on her fore mast.
USS West Virginia after her total reconstruction. There is very little difference in appearance between this ship and the Tennessee although they belong to two different design classes. Besides the calibers of their guns and minor differences in their 20 mm A. At Pearl Harbor West Virginia was hit by four torpedoes and two heavy bombs. Although severely damaged, she settled on an even keel. After refloating, the ship was totally reconstructed and ceased to resemble her sister ships. However the arrangement of the main armament was different.
She only rejoined the fleet in September , no longer recognizable as a Colorado class ship. She was the only ship of this class reconstructed to the design of the earlier Tennessee class. Her camouflage painting is in accordance with Measure She is equipped with a SK antenna. Totalling twelve ships, these two classes were to incorporate a number of new features of considerable interest. South Dakota I was a battleship class, authorised in The first project studies were for a vessel of 80, tons with a length of feet, and armed with the ex- raordinary number of fifteen 18 in guns.
The intended maximum speed was 35 knots. The final design of the South Dakotas turned out much closer to that of the Colorado class, with about 47, tons displacement engines developing 60, h. The main armament consisted of twelve 16 in guns mounted in four triple turrets this was the heaviest caliber of gun in service at the time. Armor plating was to be one and a half times the thickness of that fitted to the British battlecruiser Hood. In the end they were to be arranged on both sides of the ship alongside the turbines, with four funnels in pairs, which all led into a single main funnel.
The drive was to be turbo electric. The design, as finally released, did not meet the U. Plans showing the final design of the six South Dakota I battleships whose construction was cancelled after World War I. Note the unique shape of the funnel with quadruple uptakes instead of the four funnels normally needed with the boiler arrangement of these ships. Another new feature was the use of 6 in guns housed in casemate mounts. Faced with this dilemma, the Americans put their money on protection and striking power, relegating speed to secondary importance.
The task of such ships was to destroy inferior warships, whilst keeping out of range of heavy punishment. So it was that the type of ship later called the battlecruiser was born. As already mentioned, the U. However design work for six ships of the battlecruiser type was started and given consideration in Two projects were rejected. The battlecruiser to be built would displace Plans showing the third design of the six Lexington class battle-cruisers whose construction was cancelled after World War I.
The length of these ships was considerably greater than that of all previous battleships. The medium gun battery of this design was planned to have half its guns in casemates. The torpedo tubes would be installed on the lower quarterdeck. The same applied to the catapults.
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Two other characteristic features of this design were the bulky funnels and the bow bulge. There would be sixteen boilers and turbo-electric drive. The hull line was that of a cruiser and relatively longer than a battleship hull. A large quarterdeck was provided for the subsequent addition of seaplane catapults.
An innovation was the bulb bow, introduced after extensive laboratory tests, to reduce water resistance at speeds above 25 knots. Earlier completion of these ships would have made the U. Navy the most powerful in the world. But work on them was suspended after the signing of the Washington Treaty, when two— Lexington and Saratoga —had already been launched.
At 39, tons, they became the largest carriers afloat when completed in North Carolina Class The two ships of this class were the first U. For the first time a tower foremast appeared on a U. The number of these was increased during the war and they were placed wherever space was available. Two catapults with associated aircraft handling gear were installed at the stern. The hull had a rather straighter bow than previous classes and, for the first time in the U. Navy, there were no portholes.
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Place of Event. Recipient Name. From: The Commanding Officer. To: The Commander-in-Chief, U. Pacific Fleet. Direct 3 The Commander Battle Force. References: a U. Navy Regulations, Articles , b , , and Enclosure: A Chronological report of general events. C Report of Executive Officer. On Sunday, December 7, , the U. The U. West Virginia was moored alongside to port with one wire hauser and seven manila lines.
Boiler 1 was steaming for auxiliary purposes. Various units of the U. Pacific Fleet and various yard craft were present in the Harbor. Commander-in-Chief, U. Pacific Fleet was the Senior Officer Present. Commander Battle Force in the U. California was the Senior Officer Present Afloat. Maryland was moored to quay Fox 5 and the U. Arizona inboard and the U. Vestal outboard were moored to quay Fox 7, these quays being about seventy-five feet ahead and astern respectively of the U.
At about , planes, observed to be Japanese by their markings, were seen dropping bombs on Ford Island. This ship went to general quarters and started setting condition Zed. Immediately, after the bombing of Ford Island, planes began torpedoing and bombing the battleships and other ships in the Harbor. This ship opened fire with 5" 25 caliber, 3". Orders for sortie were received but later cancelled for battleships. This ship was ready to get underway with both plants and 6 boilers about Shortly after the attack began the Oklahoma, West Virginia, and California received torpedo hits.
The Oklahoma listed over and in about 10 minutes capsized. The West Virginia listed heavily but was righted by counter flooding. The California listed. The Arizona received several large bomb hits at least one of which apparently penetrated the magazines. There was a large explosion forward. The foremast fell forward and burning powder, oil, and debris was thrown on the quarterdeck of the Tennessee. The Arizona settled rapidly by the bow. The Nevada got underway but was struck by bombs and torpedoes and grounded in the channel. Large fires were raging around the Arizona and West Virginia.
The Arizona was moored to quays about seventy-five feet astern of the Tennessee and the West Virginia was moored to the Tennessee. The burning powder, oil, and debris from the Arizona explosion plus the intense heat from the fires started fires in the stern and port quarter of this ship. These fires and the subsequent wetting caused considerable damage to the wardroom and officers' quarters in this vicinity. The fires were brought under control about The Captain returned aboard about and resumed command. The hit on turret III wrecked the high catapult and penetrated the roof of the turret.
The bomb broke into large pieces but did not explode. The explosive charge spilled into the turret and burned. Fragments of the bomb strongly indicate that it was a converted 15" armor piercing shell and weighed about to pounds. The training gear and rammers were damaged. The range finder was completely wrecked. Several casualties occurred as a result of this hit. Casualties will be listed separately.
The hit on turret II split the hoop of the center gun, rendering it inoperative. Fragments from this hit caused casualties on the machine gun stations. The active fighting was over by about although small numbers of planes were observed and fired at through the day, no more bombs or torpedoes were observed. It is believed that this ship shot down four enemy planes. When fires started in and around the West Virginia and Arizona, this ship led out all fire hoses and fought fires in the former ship and the oil fires on the water that endangered this ship.
This fire fighting continued throughout the day and night. About it was decided to try and moved the ship forward so as to escape the fires from the badly burning Arizona. Both engines went ahead five knots but the ships did not move. It is believed that the West Virginia, as a result of her torpedo hits, had wedged the Tennessee so close to the quays that she could not move. The engines were kept turning over from five to ten knots throughout the day and night in order that the screw current could wash the burning oil from the stern of the Tennessee.
During the bombing 3 motor boat was sunk. Number 2 motor launched burned and sank when caught in the oil fire from the Arizona. When the fires started magazine number , , were flooded. At about fire broke out in the after crane room, caused by heat from fires on the Arizona.
At fire under control. After airplane crane out of commission. At commenced firing on planes crossing over the ship. At the end of the day the ship was in the following condition: Main battery ready for action except center gun in turret II and left gun in turret III. All guns of other batteries ready for action. High catapult out of commission. No underwater damage. Main propulsion machinery and ship's lighting and power not effected. Considerable damage to forward machine gun platform and navigation bridge. None of this effected the fighting ability of the ship.
The three planes attached to vessel were shore based at N. Ford Island during the action, but were destroyed by enemy planes at that place. Officers - Injured in action Ensign D. Marines - Injured in action Sgt. Raymond W. All casualties were received while performing duty of highest order. The following ammunition was expended during the battle: rounds 5"25 A.
The average depth of water at Berth Fox 6, Lat. The draft of the ship Dec. The ship had been fueled on Dec. Fuel on hand at , Dec. The condition of the weather Sunday morning, December 7, , was: Sea - slight wind ripples; Wind - N. The conduct of the officers and crew of the Tennessee was uniformly in accordance with the highest traditions of the Service. Not only did they fight the battle with calmness and deliberation but for the next twenty-four hours they fought the oil fires in the Arizona and West Virginia which threatened to destroy the Tennessee.
The Arizona was eight feet to windward and her burning oil was a real menace to this ship; the West Virginia was alongside with her forward magazines in danger of explosion; nevertheless, the crew carried out their gunnery and damage control duties as if at drill. The Commanding Officer considers that the conduct of the following officers was especially distinguished: 1 Lieut-Comdr. Smoke so thick, cannot see. Flames up as high as foretop. False Report - Planes coming in on starboard bow; do not know whether enemy or friendly. Engineering Department, standby. Fire seems to be under control.
Teague says hatches cannot be opened from inside wardroom country - too hot. NOTE: Dead man forward of conning tower, sent stretcher party. Valves to Sk Bay. All hands, not engaged in fighting fire, seek cover. Power from steering aft. Said planes flying low; apparently, turning away. Did not. Proved to be friendly. Kable still alive. Hudgell dead; also, Miller and Adams. All sounding normal. Plane signalled with red light; did not understand meaning of signal. Running lights on; believed friendly. Tennessee December 11, Exterior Damage. Hole in center gun through out hoops "D" hoop and into adjacent hoop "C" hoop.
Metal strips used for securing storm bloomers were blown off left and center gun ports and torn loose from face of turret on the right gun port. Turret crew filed and machined down the rough surfaces. Several bolts holding weather strips to slide shield were sheared off. Interior Damage. Slide of center gun cracked. There is a 1" crack extending aft on both sides of the lower cylindrical surface for about a quarter of the length of the slide.
Gun port shield cracked above the pointer's seat. The plug operating lever and cam bolt was sheared off the breech of the center gun. Both left and right guns are out of alignment.