The seven edicts are described in both versions of the story, but they are not quoted by Toynbee. Vita Sylvestri, ed. Mombritius, f. The word papa father was used for any bishop in the fourth century. It was not until the sixth century that the imperial chancery at Constantinople addressed the bishops of Rome with the title papa, and not until the eleventh century that Pope Gregory VII declared it to be their exclusive title.
See Philippe Levillain, s. Philippe Levillain New York: Rutledge, , —28, and s. Cross, 3rd edn. An English translation may be found in E. Part of this version of the story is also in Gratian, Decretum, Distinctio 96, c. The most complete study of this document is by Fried, Donation.
The Bishop of Rome was thus already the undisputed head of a great organization over which the Emperor had very little control. Oswald J. Duchesne, Temporal Sovereignty, 32— Key documents, including the Donation of Pepin, are translated by Oliver J. Thatcher and Edgar H. Gratian, Decretum, Prima Pars, Dist. Kirsch, The Catholic Encyclopedia , s.
What darkness and wickedness is at Rome. I am in such a fit that I scarcely doubt that the Pope is Antichrist expected by the world. Dante: Monarchy, trans. Stanley Benfell, s. Subsequent quotes in English from the Bible are from this edition, but noted only by book, chapter, and verse. Nowhere does he seem to regard his message as more important to his purpose.
It was also radical, however, in extending the meaning of the symbol to include the papal as well as the pagan city and in connecting the image of the woman with her new governors the popes. Of the nineteenth- and twentieth-century commentators, only Francesco Torracca , La Divina Commedia di Dante Aligheri nuovamente commentata da Francesco Torraca, 4th ed. Milan: Segati, , comment to Inf. Scritti in onore di Francesco Mazzoni, ed.
Since the fourth or fifth century, a mosaic called the Navicella depicting the scene in Matt. Dante would have certainly seen this mosaic when he was in Rome in or In Giotto was commissioned to reconstruct the mosaic. Dante here transforms the image of the boat laden with apostles to a boat laden with worldly power and goods, thanks to the Donation of Constantine.
Hollander and Hollander, note to Inf. Compare Mon. Charles T. Bonaventure was not canonized until Convivio, ed. Franca Brambilla Ageno, trans. The image of the seamless tunic comes from John , the tunic of Christ for which the soldiers drew lots. Dante returns to the seamless tunic in Monarchia 3. Shaw translation, 28 n. In the Commedia the only cognate he uses is dona, and that only once, when Solomon describes the freely given light that the souls in Heaven will receive upon the resurrection of the body Par.
He uses various versions of the root dona- several times in the Convivio and Il Fiore, always in the sense of give, giver, gift. Donare is one of the sweet and polished words he lists in the De vulgari eloquentia, 2. The word donatione appears only once in the entire canon, in Epistles The translations of the seven syllogisms are mine. In making these arguments, Dante reflected the interest in theories of inalienability of sover- eign rights developed during the late thirteenth and the fourteenth centuries. See Peter N. New York: AMS, Dante Alighieri, Monarchia, ed.
Gustavo Vinay Florence: Sansoni, , —47 n. See esp. I, Tit. VI, prefatio, Conferens generi Venice, , f. Nunquid habet ergo papa temporalem iurisditionem in hiis que sunt imperii, quod constantinus imperator donavit beato silvestro pape? Videtur quod sic licet immensa fuerit donatio, preterea quod vult princeps hoc est lex. Item sicut patrimonialia ita imperialia donare potest, cum nulla sit differentia. Et contra videtur quod non quia tunc esset augustus dictus.
Item imperare non potuit pari, idest imperatori venienti post se. Item ne turbetur opus [Dei] si clerici intromittunt se in temporalibus. Item ne unus duorum officium habeat. Sed licet solutio facti ad nos non pertineat, solvimus de iure quod non valuit talis collatio sive donatio. William Little, H. Fowler, and J. Coulson, rev. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, IV, 1, trans. Martin Ostwabi Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, , Thomas Aquinas, Sententia libri ethicorum, Liber 4, cap.
Nam etsi per Lucam habemus relaxationem precepti quantum ad quedam, ad possessionem tamen auri et argenti licentiatam Ecclesiam post prohibitionem illam invenire non potui emphasis added. Per argentum, facundia rhetorica. Per pecuniam in zone: sapientia abscondita. Per peram, onus seculi. Per calceamenta, mortuorum operum exempla. Nicholl translation. Patet igitur quod nec Ecclesia recipere per modum possessionis, nec ille conferre per modum alientationis poterat. Poterat et vicarius Dei recipere non tanquam possessor, sed tanquam fructum pro Ecclesia pro Cristi pauperibus dispensator: quod apos- tolos fecisse non ignoratur.
King and S. Richard Lansing New York: Routledge, , — Toynbee edition, Leviticus and See also Deuteronomy —9. Quinymo invenio sacerdotes primos ab illa de precepto remotos, ut patent per ea que Deus ad Moysen [Num. Ex quo arguunt dignitates illas deinde neminem assummere posse nisi ab Ecclesia recip- iat, cuius eas esse dicunt; et ex hoc bene sequeretur auctoritatem unam ab alia dependere, ut ipsi volunt.
Here I must agree with Nardi. The Constitutum Constantini, 13; ed. Fuhrmann, 84—85; English translation by Ernest F. Hen- derson, Select Historical Documents, —29, at Constitutum Constantini, 13; ed. Hender- son, Select Historical Documents, —29, at Fuhrmann, 85— It is worth noting that, although the Constitu- tum Constantini drew heavily on the legend of St. Toynbee provides a long quote from the Bodleian manuscript f. Passionale, and passim; Legenda aurea 2 and passim. Rose E. Selfe and ed. Philip H. Edward B. King and Susan J. Ridyard Sewanee, Tenn. What follows pertains primarily but not exclusively to Roman law.
There is a decidedly amateurish air to his citations. Niermeyer and C. See s. Paul, Minn. Buckland and Arnold D. Lawson ; repr. Property was always a critical issue, even when dominium eminens or universale was under discussion. Its significance is revealed by an anecdote concerning the Emperor Frederick I. On this see Nicolini, 93—; R. Among canon lawyers such an opinion was much more rare, but by no means altogether absent.
For example, the Carlyles, , n.
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Victor, De sacramentis 2. Et omnia quae ad terrenam vitam spectant subjecta sunt terrenae potestati. Corpus iuris civilis, Vol. Theodore Mommsen, 11th ed. Charles W. Sloane, s. Charles G. Herb- ermann et al. New York: Universal Knowledge Foundation, , — When all of the ecclesiastical property is taken together the church was clearly the largest landowner for centuries.
The percentage of land held by the church may have decreased after , but the acreage must have gone up because of the fairly rapid process of bringing new land into ownership boundaries. Taunton, The Law of the Church, s. We have seen that Dante would allow the emperor to delegate things to the church in patrocinium Mon. He uses the word patrocinium and its cognates three other times in the Monarchia and once in his letters. In Monarchia 3. Taunton, s. My thanks to Jennifer Ferriss-Hill of the University of Miami for help with the translation of his passage.
Note, however, that Hugh of St. Victor was a favorite of the hierocrats. In an earlier chapter of the De sacramentis 2. However, Nardi does not call attention to the crucial significance of the word, either here or on pp. Had Pagliaro understood the significance of the word patrocinium as a protectorate, he might not have wandered down this strange path. The concept of the pope and prelates as dispensers of resources for the good of the poor was founded on canon law; for example, Gratian, Decretum, Secunda Pars, Causa 12, q.
However, to say that the bishops and the pope were dispensers of wealth did not, according to canon law, mean that the church could not own property. See Gratian, Decretum, loc. Justinian, Institutes 2. Vinay edition , , accepted edeant but failed to explain why he made this choice. Barbi, Problemi fondamentali, 60— Proprio nessuno. Shaw edition, ; Shaw translation, Certainly none with regard to the Donation. Pie- tro was not recorded as a student of law until John A.
The complete poem is in Mirbt, Quellen, no. Emilio Panella Pistoia: Memorie Dominicane, , cap. Johannis de Serravalle, comment to Purg. Hollander, Life in Works, Ronald B. Herzman and William A. Compagni, 71 2. Rebecca S. However, even if Dante meant the reference to be derogatory, that does not eliminate the possibility that Dante knew Ubertino personally. Francis in Paradiso Joachim of Flora, Liber de Concordia noui ac ueteris testamenti, 4. Bonaventure, Sermones 4 de S. Francisci, in Opera Omnia 9, — Bonaventure, Collations on the Six Days, 16th Collation, 18, trans. Bonaventure, trans.
Bonaventura, , 36, here- after cited as Bartoli edition, says that the words dominium, ius, and iurisdictio are not to be found in any of the writings of Francis. See Lambert, Franciscan Poverty, Lambert, Franciscan Poverty, — Lambert translation, Franciscan Poverty, Bonaventure, Apologia pauperum Cum igitur Fratres Minores animum acquirendi non habeant, quin potius voluntatem contrarium, etiam si res corpore contingant; nec dominium nec possessionem acquirunt nec rerum huiusmodi possessores vel domini dici possunt.
Apologia pauperum 7. Nicholas III, in the bull Exiit qui seminat August 14, , CICan, —21, repeated this explanation of Luke —36, but he used the term proprietas more frequently than dominium throughout. In fact in the Apologia pauperum 7. See Epistolae 1 and 2 of the Epistolae officiales, Opera Omnia, — Minorum, and , Opera Omnia, and Minor[um] Venice: Lazarus de Suardis, , ff. This edition is extremely rare; ; Quaestio 18 is now available in the Bartoli edition, — While the overall thrust of An papa is toward detailing the limitations on papal power, it does not follow that Olivi can be accurately described as antihierocratic.
Douie, Fraticelli, , n. Peter Olivi, Quaestiones de perfectione evangelica, Q. Ad iustum autem reditum valde, quamvis per accidens, cooperabitur non solum multiplex [imperfectio] in possessione et dis- pensatione temporalium ecclesie in pluribus comprobata, sed etiam multiplex enormitas superbie et luxurie et symoniarum et causidicationum [sic], litigiorum et fraudum et rapinarum ex ipsis occasion- aliter accepta, ex quibus circa finem quinti temporis a planta pedis usque ad verticem est fere tota ecclesia infecta et confusa et quasi nova Babilon effecta. No link between Hugh of St. Victor and St.
Bernard is apparent on this issue, although Olivi quotes both authors. Bernard of Clairvaux, De consideratione 1. Eius vero meridies fuit in preclarea doctrina et vita doctorum et anachoritarum. See also Arbor vitae 2. Arbor vitae 5. In a later passage, at b, he neglects to mention Constantine when listing the ages of the church. Ubertino believed that the pope is married to the church, so that he can relinquish the office only by death or heresy.
He who takes the place of the rightful pope commits adultery with the church and therefore becomes a whore. Iesum paupertatis spiritum genitorem, et suos educatores veraces. For this story, see esp. Enciclopedia dantesca, s. He thought that the clergy as a whole should have remained poor, and should have shunned all temporal jurisdiction from the time of Christ to the end of history.
Olivi, Lectura super Apocalipsim, Lewis edition, Unlike Olivi, Ubertino, Arbor vitae, 5. Brunetto Latini, Li Livres dou Tresor, ed. Christopher Kleinhenz New York: Routledge, , s. Remigio, Contra falsos 5—37, ed. Panella, passim. Remigio, Contra falsos 26, ed. Panella, Contra falsos 27, ibid. Contra falsos 18, ibid. Principes autem seculares habent auctoritatem scilicet a Deo mediante homine, etiam ipso papa. Hoc enim caput papa est. Dante cites Cino numerous times in the De vulgari eloquentia.
See also Enciclopedia dantesca, s. Lambert, Heresy, Lambert, Heresy, 53, and Leff, Heresy, I, John D.
Anderson and Elizabeth T. Kennan, The Works of Bernard of Clairvaux, vol. Bernard of Clairvaux, Declamationes de colloquio Simonis cum Jesu, PL , —50; this lan- guage was pointed out by Vinay in his edition, —79 n. For the Apostle could not give you what he did not have. What he had he gave: responsibility for the churches, as I have said.
Did he give dominion [dominationem]? It is clear: dominion [dominatus] is forbidden for apostles. Therefore, go ahead and dare to usurp the apostolic office as lord [dominans], or as pope usurp dominion [dominatum]. Clearly, you are forbidden to do either. Joan Ferrante, Political Vision, 23 n. Cheney and W. PL , — Ullmann, Medieval Papalism, Tierney, Crisis, Ehler and J. This point adds further support to the suggestion made below that Dante was countering argu- ments made during the —14 controversy. Clericis laicos and Unam sanctam may be found in Mirbt, Quellen, —64 nos.
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