The membrane separation process is based on the presence of semi permeable membranes.
The principle is quite simple: the membrane acts as a very specific filter that will let water flow through, while it catches suspended solids and other substances. There are various methods to enable substances to penetrate a membrane.
Examples of these methods are the applications of high pressure, the maintenance of a concentration gradient on both sides of the membrane and the introduction of an electric potential. Membranes occupy through a selective separation wall.
Basic Principles of Membrane Technology
Certain substances can pass through the membrane, while other substances are caught. Membrane filtration can be used as an alternative for flocculation , sediment purification techniques, adsorption sand filters and active carbon filters, ion exchangers , extraction and distillation. There are two factors that determine the affectivity of a membrane filtration process; selectivity and productivity. Selectivity and productivity are membrane-dependent. Membrane filtration systems can be managed in either dead-end flow or cross-flow. The purpose of the optimisation of the membrane techniques is the achievement of the highest possible production for a long period of time, with acceptable pollution levels.
The choice for a certain kind of membrane system is determined by a great number of aspects, such as costs, risks of plugging of the membranes, packing density and cleaning opportunities.
Membranes are never applied as one flat plate, because this large surface often results in high investing costs. That is why systems are built densely to enable a large membrane surface to be put in the smallest possible volume. Membranes are implemented in several types of modules. Tubular membrane systems are divided up in tubular, capillary and hollow fiber membranes. Membrane fouling During membrane filtration processes membrane fouling is inevitable, even with a sufficient pre-treatment. The types and amounts of fouling are dependent on many different factors, such as feed water quality, membrane type, membrane materials and process design and control.
Errors that remain are my fault. Especially, I wish to acknowledge my wife Jos for her patience and understanding during the many hours in the evenings when I was writing the book.
Finally, I wish to express my warm feelings to my sons Ivo and Joris for just being there. Gas adsorption-desorption IV. Introduction Driving forces Nonequilibrium thermodynamics Transport through porous membranes V. A unified approach V. Introduction Osmosis Pressure driven membrane processes VI. Introduction Concentration polarisation Characteristic flux behaviour in pressure driven membrane operations Gel layer model Osmotic pressure model Boundary layer resistance model Concentration polarisation in electrodialysis Temperature polarisation Membrane fouling Methods to reduce fouling Compaction References.
In , at about the time that Graham reported his first dialysis experiments using synthetic membranes , Maxwell created the 'sorting demon', "a being whose faculties are so sharpened that he can follow every molecule in its course and would be able to what is at present impossible to us" . In other words, the demon is able to discriminate between molecules.
Suppose that a vessel is divided into two parts A and B by a division in which there is a small hole and that Maxwell's demon sits at the hole which he can open and close at will see figure I - 1. Figure I - 1.
Basic Principles of Membrane Technology - AbeBooks - Marcel Mulder:
The 'sorting demon' has ensured that a random situation a has been transformed into an ordered one b. Part A is filled with a gas consisting of hot H and cold C molecules i. Hand C differ in average speed and the demon allows only the hot molecules H to pass. After he has been doing this for a while, the hot H and cold C molecules will be separated completely figure 1b.
Hence, starting from a random situation, an ordered one is attained which is against the second law of thermodynamics. This law states that a system tends to maximise its entropy, i. Marcel Mulder Basic principles of membrane technology, 1st ed. Published on Jan View Download 7.
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Includes bibliographical references and index. Membranes Technology 1. M4M85 '. Preface Membranes playa central role in our daily life, or as indicated by one of my foreign colleagues, Richard Bowen, 'If you are tired of membranes, you are tired of life'. Suppose now we have a membrane that separates the two parts of th Basic Principles of Membrane Technology. Von M. Kluver Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, XII, S. Basic principles of exciter-technology -? Space Marines Painting Guide 1st Ed.
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